Foot biomechanics

List of the projects

  • Anatomical protocol for the gait and posture analysis of diabetic patients.

  • Analysis of the alterations of the lower extremities  muscles in individuals with diabetic foot pathology and post stroke.

  • Developement of a multisegment foot kinematic model for diabetic foot prevention.

  • Developement of an integrated multisegment foot kinematic-kinetic-plantar pressure model for diabetic foot prevention.

  • Development of a 3D foot finite element model for diabetic foot prevention

  • Development of a 2D finite element model of the heel pad for diabetic foot prevention.

Founded projects

  • 2014-2016 University Project, PI Claudio Cobelli: “Development of a multi-physics diabetic foot model for plantar ulcers prevention in diabetic subjects”.

  • 2009-2011 University Project, PI Angelo Avogaro: “Diabetic foot prevention through biomechanics analysis and custom foot orthotics ”.


  • Z Sawacha, G Cristoferi, G Guarneri, S Corazza, G Donà, P Denti, A Facchinetti, A Avogaro, C Cobelli. (2009). Multisegment Model for Assessing Diabetic Foot Kinematics. Journal of NeuroEngineering and Rehabilitation. 2009 Oct 23; 6(1):37.
  • Guiotto A, Sawacha Z, Guarneri G, Cristoferi G, Avogaro A, Cobelli C. The role of foot morphology on foot function in diabetic subjects with or without neuropathy. Gait and Posture 2013 Apr;37(4):603-10
  • Z Sawacha, G Guarneri, A Avogaro, C Cobelli. (2010). A new classification of diabetic gait pattern based on cluster analysis of biomechanical data. J Diabetes Sci Technol. 2010 Sep 1;4(5):1127-38.
  • R Stagni, L Tersi, S Fantozzi, Z Sawacha, A Guitto, C Cobelli. A fluoroscopic gold standard for the evaluation of marker-based protocols for in vivo foot kinematics, Gait & Posture 2012, 35(Suppl 1):S18-S19