Gait and posture analysis

List of the projects

  • Anatomical protocol for the gait and posture analysis of diabetic patients.

  • Analysis of the alterations of the lower extremities  muscles in individuals with diabetic foot pathology and post stroke.

  • Electrical manifestations of muscle fatigue and evaluation of cardiac performance in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and peripheral vascular disease.

  • Effects of physical activity on biomechanical abnormalities and on cardiovascular fitness in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a pilot study.

  • Combined motion analysis and fMRI of stroke survivors.

  • Spine mobility evaluation.

  • Posture analysis in patients with unilateral or bilateral posterior cross bite.

  • Electromyographic analysis of masticatory muscles in subjects with unilateral or bilateral posterior cross bite.

  • Biomechanical analysis of the curvature of the spine in patients with kyphosis.

  • Correlation voice-posture: postural differences in subjects with different vocal condition.

Founded projects

  • 2014-2016 University Project, PI Claudio Cobelli: “Development of a multi-physics diabetic foot model for plantar ulcers prevention in diabetic subjects”.

  • 2009-2011 University Project, PI Angelo Avogaro: “Diabetic foot prevention through biomechanics analysis and custom foot orthotics ”.



  • Benedetti MG, Beghi E, De Tanti A, Cappozzo A, Basaglia N, Cutti AG, Cereatti A, Stagni R, Verdini F, Manca M, Fantozzi S, Mazzà C, Camomilla V, Campanini I, Castagna A, Cavazzuti L, Del Maestro M, Croce UD, Gasperi M, Leo T, Marchi P, Petrarca M, Piccinini L, Rabuffetti M, Ravaschio A, Sawacha Z, Spolaor F, Tesio L, Vannozzi G, Visintin I, Ferrarin M. SIAMOC position paper on gait analysis in clinical practice: General requirements, methods and appropriateness. Results of an Italian consensus conference. Gait Posture. 2017 Aug 5;58:252-260. doi: 10.1016/j.gaitpost.2017.08.003. Review.
  • Mason M, Spolaor F, Guiotto A, De Stefani A, Gracco A, Sawacha Z. Gait and posture analysis in patients with unilateral posterior crossbite, before and after RPE. International Orthodontics. Accepted. 2016.


  • Sawacha Z*, Spolaor F*, Del Din S, Guarneri G, Avogaro A, Cobelli C. Altered EMG patterns in diabetic neuropathic and not neuropathic patients are related to speed during step ascending and descending. Journal Of Electromyography And Kinesiology. 2016 Aug 20;31:32-39.
  • Spolaor F, Cocilovo F, Cobelli C, Gracco, Sawacha Z. A Surface electromyography as a tool in the treatment of temporomandibular disorders. Proceedings of XXV Congress of the International Society of Biomechanics in Glasgow, UK from 12th to 16th July 2015.
  • Spolaor F, Sawacha Z, Cocilovo F, Cobelli C, Gracco A. Application of surface emg in young children affected by temporomandibular disorders: a pilot study. Proceedings 1st Clinical Movement Analysis World Conference, ROME, 29th September - 4th October 2014.
  • Del Din S, Bertoldo A, Sawacha Z, Jonsdottir J, Rabuffetti M, Cobelli C, Ferrarin M. Assessment of biofeedback rehabilitation in post-stroke patients combining fMRI and gait analysis: a Case Study. J Neuroeng Rehabil. 2014 Apr 9;11:53.
  • Sawacha Z, Spolaor F, Del Din S, Guarneri G, Avogaro A, Cobelli C. Stair ascending and descending task could be a valid tool for assessing diabetic subjects balance alterations. Gait & Posture, Volume 40, Supplement 1, August 2014, Pages S9-S10
  • Spolaor F, Sawacha Z, Negretto M, Scarton A, Guarneri G, Avogaro A, Cobelli C. Moderate physical activity could improve walking strategy of diabetic patients? A pilot study. Gait & Posture, Volume 40, Supplement 1, August 2014, Page S8
  • S Del Din, S Peharec, Z Sawacha, R Guglielmin, E Carraro, AR Gravina, F Spolaor, S Masiero, C Cobelli. Reliability assessment of a marker based methodology for the evaluation of spine mobility in ankylosing spondylitis. Gait & Posture 2013, 37(Suppl 1): S23.
  • Guiotto A, Sawacha Z, Guarneri G, Cristoferi G, Avogaro A, Cobelli C. The role of foot morphology on foot function in diabetic subjects with or without neuropathy. Gait and Posture 2013 Apr;37(4):603-10.
  • Sawacha Z, Carraro E, Contessa P, Guiotto A, Masiero S and Cobelli C. Relationship between clinical and instrumental balance assessments in chronic poststroke hemiparesis subjects: a pilot study. JNER. Aug 13;10:95.
  • Laudani L, Vannozzi G, Sawacha Z, della Croce U, Cereatti A, Macaluso A. Association between Physical Activity Levels and Physiological Factors Underlying Mobility in Young, Middle-Aged and Older Individuals Living in a City District". PlosOne 2013 Sep 6;8(9):e74227
  • Z Sawacha, F Spolaor, G Guarneri, P Contessa, E Carraro, A Venturin, A Avogaro, C Cobelli. (2012). Abnormal muscle activation during gait in diabetes patients with and without neuropathy. Gait and Posture. 2012 Jan;35(1):101-5.
  • Z Sawacha. G Guarneri, G Cristoferi, A Guiotto, A Avogaro, C Cobelli (2012). Integrated kinematics-kinetics-plantar pressure data analysis: a useful tool for characterizing diabetic foot biomechanics. Gait and Posture. 2012 May;36(1):20-6.
  • Z Sawacha*, E Carraro*, S Del Din*, A Guiotto*, L Bonaldo, L Punzi, C Cobelli, S Masiero (2012). Biomechanical assessment of balance and posture in subjects with ankylosing spondylitis. JNER. 2012 Aug 29;9(1):63. (IF 2.12) * Equal contributors
  • S Del Din, Z Sawacha, E Carraro, A Guiotto, S Masiero, C Cobelli. (2011). Impaired gait in ankylosing spondylitis. Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing. 2011 Jan 13
  • V Agostini, F Spolaor, Z Sawacha, G Guarneri, S Vigili de Kreutzenberg, A Avogaro, C Cobelli, M Knaflitz. SEMG evaluation during treadmill walking: Methodological issues in searching signs of muscle fatigue. Gait & Posture 2011, 33(Suppl 1): S45-S46
  • E Ceseracciu, M Reggiani, Z Sawacha, M Sartori, F Spolaor, C Cobelli, E Pagello (2010). SVM classification of locomotion modes using surface electromyography for applications in rehabilitation robotics. RO-MAN, 2010 IEEE: 165 – 170.
  • Z Sawacha, G Guarneri, A Avogaro, C Cobelli. (2010). A new classification of diabetic gait pattern based on cluster analysis of biomechanical data. J Diabetes Sci Technol. 2010 Sep 1;4(5):1127-38.
  • Z Sawacha, G Cristoferi, G Guarneri, S Corazza, G Donà, P Denti, A Facchinetti, A Avogaro, C Cobelli. (2009). Multisegment Model for Assessing Diabetic Foot Kinematics. Journal of NeuroEngineering and Rehabilitation. 2009 Oct 23; 6(1):37.
  • Z Sawacha, G Guarneri, G Cristoferi, A Guiotto, A Avogaro, C Cobelli. (2009). Diabetic gait and posture abnormalities: a biomechanical investigation through three dimensional gait analysis. Clinical Biomechanics; 24: 722-728